Alpers, Edward A. "The African Diaspora in the Northwestern Indian Ocean." Comparative Studies in South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 17 (1997): 62-82.
Alpers, Edward A. Ivory and Slaves: Changing Pattern of International Trade in East Central Africa to the Later Nineteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.
Austen, Ralph. "The Nineteenth Century Islamic Slave Trade from East Africa (Swahili and Red Sea Coasts): A Tentative census." In William Gervase Clarence-Smith, ed., The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the 19th Century. London; Totowa, NJ: Frank Cass, 1989.
Bennett, Norman. Arab versus European: Diplomacy and War in Nineteenth-Century East Central Africa. New York: Africana Publishing. Co., 1986.
Bennett, Norman Robert. Mirambo of Tanzania, 1840? - 1884. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.
Bhacker, M. Reda. Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: Roots of British Domination. London; New York: Routledge, 1992.
Cooper, Frederick. Plantation Slavery on the East Coast of Africa. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977; Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1997.
Ewald, Janet. "Crossers of the Sea: Slaves, Freedmen, and Other Migrants in the Northwestern Indian Ocean, c. 1750-1914." American Historical Review 105 (2000): 69-91.
Feierman, Steven. "A Century of Ironies in East Africa (c.1780-1890)." In P. Curtin, S. Feierman, L. Thompson, and J. Vansina. African History: From Earliest Times to Independence. 2nd. ed. London; New York: Longman, 1995.
Harris, Joseph E. The African Presence in Asia: Consequences of the East African Slave Trade. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1971. (See discussion of this work in Alpers ).
Liebowitz, Daniel. The Physician and the Slave Trade: John Kirk, the Livingstone Expeditions, and the Crusade Against Slavery in East Africa. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1999.
Manning, Patrick. Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Sheriff, Abdul. Slaves, Spices, and Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770-1873. London : J. Currey; Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987.
Spear, Thomas. Kenya's Past: An Introduction to Historical Method in Africa. London; New York: Longman, 1981.
Vansina, Jan. "Upstarts and Newcomers in Equatorial Africa (c. 1815-1875)." In P. Curtin, S. Feierman, L. Thompson, and J. Vansina. African History from Earliest Times to Independence. 2nd ed. London; New York: Longman, 1995.
Were, Gideon S. and Derek A. Wilson. East Africa Through a Thousand Years: A History of the Years A.D. 1000 to the Present. New York, 1970. 2d ed. . London: Evans Bros., 1972. (Older, still useful text.)